Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Describe the employment of women in Britain in 1914 at the outbreak of war

As war broke out in 1914 around 1/3 of ladies were in some sort of paid work. Most of this was local assistance or secretarial work and a great many people acknowledged, there was a bad situation for ladies in difficult work e. g. dock-working, mining or street - burrowing. A lady's job was particularly as the homemaker. They were viewed as the more fragile sex and the sex that had less rights than men. Better than average ladies were relied upon to remain at home and back the offspring of the family. They needed to comply with their spouses. England's recreation class was kept in comfort by a multitude of local workers. An enormous landowner with a spouse, two kids and a 62-lives house n the West End required an indoor staff of 36. A portion of the workers went with the family to its different homes †the nation house, the coastline estate, the ‘shooting box' in Scotland †every one of which additionally had its own different staff, containing numerous ladies. The working day could be a tiresome 17 hours in length. The most significant female worker of the family was the servant, known by the title of ‘Mrs', she instructed a detachment of female domestics like woman's house keeper, housemaids, kitchen servants and the scullion who washed the dishes. High society ladies were not expected to work. They in this way were associated with good cause work and deliberate work additionally they were intensely engaged with the suffragettes. Many average workers ladies worked the entire day at employments in their own homes, anyway some common laborers ladies worked in production lines, to enhance the men's salary, which regularly wasn't sufficient. Workrooms were frequently packed, messy, poorly lit, not well ventilated and deficiently warmed. The hours reasonable under the Factory Acts in 1901 were long. Ladies and young ladies more than 14 years could be utilized 12 hours per day and on Saturday 8 hours. Furthermore, in specific ventures, and dressmaking was one, an extra 2 hours could be worked by ladies on 30 evenings in any a year. At the flare-up of war ladies earned around 65 percent of the male pay. The work of little task young ladies, typically just 14 years old was normal. Their work was extremely fluctuated †getting things done, coordinating materials, and taking out bundles, cleaning the workrooms, and regularly likewise helping in crafted by the house. To be going around doing ‘odd occupations' for the representatives of a bustling workshop was difficult work and tiring. It was not astounding that the young ladies in those workshops regularly looked tired and exaggerated; yet there were a lot of young ladies to have their spot, so they would not yield. Numerous others were utilized to chip away at the outside of coal mineshafts or on fish docks at hard, tiring, physical work. A misogynist standpoint upon ladies in the work environment worked all through this period. It brought about aptitude definitions and pay differentials. Ladies' work was generally viewed as untalented, where as a man doing likewise occupation would be viewed as gifted. For instance welding was seen as a talented activity when men did it however when ladies became welders during the First World War it was viewed as incompetent, with ladies being paid a large portion of the male rate. Working class ladies endeavored to get into callings as specialists, legal counselors, bookkeepers and brokers yet discovered it amazingly troublesome. The assessment of men was that they were not clever enough and excessively frail genuinely hence incapable to adapt to the work. They found business simpler to discover as educators, as this was managing youngsters and they had the option to discover work in the cubicle ventures as representatives, telephonists and secretaries. Anyway female representatives would procure short of what 33% of the male pay, and a female typist would acquire i1 seven days contrasted with i3 seven days earned by a man. Ladies from the upper and white collar classes came to have more open doors in the late nineteenth century. This was especially so in training. Advanced education was available to ladies, in spite of the fact that they were confined in taking degrees in either Oxford or Cambridge. Most ladies needed such chances. Ladies fundamentally moved into the low-aptitude, low-pay ‘sweat shop' part as they were denied access to the new advances. Female assembly line laborers were commonly more regrettable rewarded than men in pay, preparing and openings, and the worker's guilds essentially male associations co-worked with the administration or the meaning of aptitudes, which influenced pay, were constrained by men and supported them; talented ladies were ineffectively perceived. Ladies were likewise paid piece rates and discovered their compensation brought down on the off chance that they earned excessively. One production line examiner commented that ‘What would one be able to do when a young lady is procuring as much as 15 shillings per week however bring down the piece rate? ‘ In a review not long before the war the social pundit and reformer, S. Rowntree, had contended that i1 seven days was vital so as to live above neediness yet barely any ladies got this sum. In J. M Barrie's satire What Ever Woman Knows (1908), John Shand, the railwayman turned MP, owes his prosperity as a debater to his better half Maggie, who has changed his exhausting talks when she composed them up. Ladies had accomplished some level of conjugal fairness and been given some instructive open doors by 1914. They had likewise started to make a few advances into customary male occupations and they had concentrated political activity on winning the vote.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Johnny Tremain :: essays research papers

Envision being back in the state of Massachusetts before the Revolutionary war. As you walk down the roads of Boston, you meet a youngster named Johnny Tremain. Subsequent to tuning in to his story, you think about the various ways you could depict him. You could portray him by his looks, by his character, and by the abilities he depicts. His character is intriguing to the point that it's difficult to portray his gifted abilities, his perplexing character, and his venerated physical highlights. As you recall the story of his hardships and destiny, you realize that Johnny Tremain will stand in your brain until the end of time. Remaining solitary on the wharf close to his glorious house, you see a flimsy, light haired, light complected youngster. There are numerous ways you can portray the way Johnny Tremain looks. You can judge by the way he stands, so pleased, that he is around 15 years of age. You can see that he's solid but on the other hand he's startled. As you move your eyes towards what's behind him you notice that his hand is injured and was likely singed. Your eyes meet his and they're a penetrating blue. You are so struck by his looks you can hardly wait to go converse with him and get some answers concerning his character characteristics. Johnny Tremain's character was very interesting, and it was generally charming to find out about how he transformed from a bossy, anxious kid, into a mindful, persistent honorable man. Despite the fact that he was a gifted specialist, he was glad, and brimming with self-importance. Be that as it may, after his horrible catastrophe, his inconsiderate character passed on in the birth and demise room, also, Johnny was renewed as a progressively patient and caring individual. He despite everything won't take feel sorry for from anybody, yet within he is most likely shouting out for help. In spite of the fact that he has nobody to talk to, he has unique abilities that help prop him up solid. Before Johnny consumed his hand dealing with a sugar bowl, he was a gifted silversmith. Envision consuming your privilege hand and losing a considerable lot of your gifts, for example, composing or utilizing a hatchet. In the wake of rehearsing, he horrendously figured out how to utilize his left hand to utilize a hatchet. He additionally figured out how to clearly compose, yet it used to be better before his mishap. Presently Johnny constantly works for a paper called the Boston Observer. He consistently rides his pony, Goblin, and dependably conveys the papers. Conveying notes for the British officials demonstrated to be a beneficial piece of his everyday practice. As the day closes, you have delighted in investing energy with Johnny.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Common App 2017-18 How to Write a Great College Application Essay

Common App 2017-18 How to Write a Great College Application Essay After a year of stability, the Common Application essay prompts have changed again â€" I think for the better â€" based on surveys of 5000 teachers, students, counselors and colleges. This year brings some wording changes and a brand new prompt â€" and an old, previously discarded question that has been brought back to life. Significantly, the now “old” Common App prompts have not changed a lot â€" which makes sense since 90% of survey respondents reported that the prompts already worked well. Ideally, the new ones will work even better. Let’s take a look at the 2017-18 Common App prompts: Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.  This prompt has not changed, and I think that’s a good thing. Many college applicants have some aspect of their lives that’s meaningful and important enough to share with the admissions committee. This question provides a welcome opportunity to do so. The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount an incident or time when you experienced a challenge, setback or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience?  â€œObstacles we encounter” and “a challenge, setback or failure” replaced the previous “failures” and “failure.”Ah, this prompt is so much less confronting, and so much more welcoming, to students who do not consider that they have “failed” but certainly have faced challenges in their lives. Not everyone is too evolved to see failure as an opportunity. And why require a failure to give students the opportunity to write about lessons learned? I like this change. Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome?“Questioned” was added to “challenged”; “prompted you to act” was replaced with “your thinking”: and “Would you make the same decision again?” was replaced by “What was the outcome?”I like this change because, while few youngsters have gone against the grain in a meaningful way, many of them have had thoughts that go against a belief or idea. The new prompt does not require students to have taken huge risks or to be activists. It just requires them to have opinions. Furthermore, they do not have to answer a yes or no question about whether they would take the same action in the future. Why require students to fortune tell like that? Instead, they can talk about what happened and naturally examine their role in that outcome. Describe a problem you’ve solved or a problem you’d like to solve. It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma-anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution.  This was a completely new prompt two years ago, and it provides an exciting opportunity for students to display their intellectual prowess or emotional intelligence. No changes for next year! Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization, that sparked a period of personal growth and a new understanding of yourself or others. This is a fairly old prompt with a fresh take. Interestingly, I predicted that it would be deleted or changed significantly last time I wrote about the Common App prompts, as I saw the danger of clichéd answers talking about Bar Mitzvahs and Eagle Scout projects.Here’s what changed: The words “formal or informal” were deleted, and the word “realization” was added. Even more significantly, instead of asking about something that “marked your transition from childhood to adulthood within your culture, community, or family,” the prompt now asks for students to delve into their own growth and understanding of themselves, their relationships and the world.Both changes reveal admissions committees’ clear preference for introspection and self-understanding. I’ve been saying for years that the committees want to see self-awareness and a focus on personal growth, and this preference could not be clearer than from the changes in this essay question. Describe a topic, idea or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more?  This brand new prompt is another opportunity for applicants to explain how their brains work, what makes them tick, and how they explore their intellectual interests. I believe it’s a way for the admissions committee to discover how engaged a student would be in both intellectual and extra-curricular pursuits. It will be a great option for any students with passion and curiosity! Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you’ve already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design.  While there was a “topic of your choice” essay question in the past, it did not suggest submitting an essay the student has already written! This choice fascinates and scares me. With the emphasis in all the other questions on sharing so personally, why open things up to essays on Huckleberry Finn? Why give this easy out to students who can just slap an essay into the box that they wrote for an English class? I bet this question in its current form won’t last long.Also interestingly, when the “topic of your choice” question was eliminated, there was very little complaint. But after a couple of years, people want it back. We’ll see what the feedback is in the future. It doesn’t really seem necessary, as the instructions to the Common App encourage students to use the prompts to write about anything they want:“What do y ou want the readers of your application to know about you apart from courses, grades, and test scores? Choose the option that best helps you answer that question and write an essay of no more than 650 words, using the prompt to inspire and structure your response.” As Scott Anderson, Senior Director for Access and Education at The Common Application, points out in The Common App Essay Prompts Are Changing. Here’s Why It Doesn’t Matter, there’s really only one question in the Common App Essay: “Write an essay on a topic of your choice.” The Common App Essay has provided you direction, and your job is to take it and create your story. If your child is applying to college and wants support on writing a great response to the Common Application Essay questions, contact The Essay Expert. Remember, approximately 26% of all college applicants hire an admissions consultant, and your child is in the same pool as they are. You might also enjoy some of my other articles about college essays and admissions.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

memory loss informative - 789 Words

Informative Speech Com-150.04 (rough outline #2) I. Introduction: A. Attention Getter- Your memory is a monster; you forget- it doesn’t. It simply files things away. It keeps things for you, or hides things from you and summons them to your recall with a will of its own. You think you have a memory but it has you! (John Irving) B. Purpose – After hearing my speech the audience will be able to define and explain memory loss or dementia in adults. Why? : This is important because we all have a memory that could be affected by memory loss. C. Preview (PowerPoint) 1. What is memory loss or dementia? 2. Types? 3. Causes? 4. Disorders? 5. Treatments? II. Discussion: A. What is memory loss†¦show more content†¦Memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to interfere with their daily life. Accounts for 50 to 80% of dementia cases. 3. Amnesia- deflicit in memory caused by brain damage, disease or psychological trauma. 4. Brain Injury- severe hit to the head from a fall or automobile accident for example, it can gradually improve over time. 5. Dementia-progressive loss of memory and other aspects of thinking that are severe enough to interfere with the ability to function in daily activities. Characterized by progressive loss of brain cells and other irregularities of the brain. 6. Hyperthymestic Syndrome- condition in which an individual posses a superior autobiographical memory. Meaning he or she can recall the vast majority of personal experiences and events in his or her life. 7. Huntington’s disease-a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and psychiatric problems typically becomes noticeable in mid-adult life. 8. Parkington’s disease- a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects your movement. Most well- known sign of Parkington’s disease the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement. 9. Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome- due to brain damage caused by a lack of vitamin B1. Lack of B1 is common in people with alcoholism. Common person’s whose bodies don’t absorb food properly such as sometimes occurs after obesityShow MoreRelatedTraumatic Effects Of Traumatic Brain Injury1278 Words   |  6 Pagesexperience having blurred vision tired eyes, and fatigue. Even stressors prior to having an injury can contribute to the result of post injury. A person will experience a change in their sleep patterns, behavioral or mood changes, and trouble with their memory, concentration, attention, or thinking when they have Traumatic Brain Injury. Traumatic Brain Injuries can conclude to changes to individuals’ behavioral, social, and emotional status. Diagnosis In Traumatic Brain Injury, there are levels of damageRead MoreThe Effects Of Sleep Loss And Short Term Recognition Memory847 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Allen. J, Elkin and D.J. Murray prove in â€Å"The Effects of Sleep Loss and Short-term Recognition Memory† that sleep deprived individuals become less aware or conscious of the material presented to them. This evaluation will show that though the author makes some good use of statistical findings, he doesn t cover all aspects in this article. Summary Allen. J, Elkin and D.J. Murray systematically lists the studies and opinions of others who agree with them and does not discuss opposingRead MoreEffects Of Episodic Memory768 Words   |  4 PagesEpisodic memory has been found to be consistently impaired in AD, thus may be a reliable measure to distinguish between dementia and healthy ageing (Salmon Bondi 2010). The RAVLT requires patients to learn a wordlist which is then recalled immediately, recalled after a delay, and lastly, a recognition test (Està ©vez-Gonzà ¡lez et al. 2003). 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She can no longer prepare meals or cook, she cannot read or write and she struggles with the physical limitations of aging, including diabetes, glaucoma, extremely poor eyesight, bad knees, walking, etc. She has â€Å"odd† habits nowRead MoreThe Theory Of Language Acquisition Essay1410 Words   |  6 Pagesregular forms and relies on pattern-associating memory for the irregular forms (Pinker 123). Therefore, when people use an irregular form, they must have previously heard that form or a similar form and have retrieved it from their memory. When they use a regular form, they don’t need to access memory at all. Experiments reveal that when people use irregular verb-forms, they â€Å"block† the innate rule-making part of language and instead rely on their memory of similar words to form the proper past-tenseRead MoreEvaluate Two Models or Theories of One Cognitive Process with Reference to Research Studies.1237 Words   |  5 Pagescognitive process of Memory are the Multi Store Memory Model and the Reconstructive Memory theory. I will be discussing the strengths and limitations of the model and the theory as well as including a few research studies to support my argument. The Multi Store Memory Model (MSMM) was founded by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) and was one of the first models on the structure of memory. It shows that something you remember begins as environmental stimuli and is then passed on as sensory memory. If the personRead MoreTypes of Dementia1550 Words   |  7 PagesDEMENTIA’S Dementia is a vague term used to describe a person that has loss of memory and change in behavior and activities. It goes beyond the forgetfulness and absent minded. It is commonly used In reference to the elderly, when cognitive abilities start to slip from one’s own control. Dementia cannot be diagnosed due to memory loss alone. It must be accompanied by two or more interruptions of brain function. Individuals who suffer from a disease that causes dementia undergo a number of changesRead MoreGenetics, Brain Structure and Behavior1552 Words   |  7 Pagesaround them. Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder that progressively damages and destroys brain cells. The deposits that are considered responsible for the brain damages are called plaques, and tangles. The plagues that cause the brain damage cause loss of connections in synaptic behavior. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Tobacco Use Is The Leading Cause Of Preventable Disease,

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease, disability, and death in the United States. According to the 2014 Surgeon General’s Report, cigarette smoking and secondhand smoking exposure contribute to more than 480,000 premature deaths annually in the United States. Smoking use is associated with different types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, strokes, diabetes, respiratory diseases, and reproductive disorders. Moreover, cigarette smoking can cause inflammation and impair the immune system (United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), 2017). Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, placental abruption, certain congenital†¦show more content†¦Approximately one-third of individuals who have ever attempted smoking become daily smokers.8 Tobacco dependence is a chronic condition and the majority of users make multiple attempts at quitting before achieving successful smoking cessation.3 In 2011, 7 in 10 (68.9%) adult smokers wanted to stop smoking and 4 in 10 (42.7%) made a quit attempt during the past year.10 An estimated 6.2 percent of current adult smokers had recently quit, 48.3 percent had been advised by a health care professional to quit smoking, and 31.7 percent had used medications and/or counseling when they made their quit attempt.19 Those who attempt to quit without pharmacologic aid have a high relapse rate which can be as high as 95% within a year from the attempt.8 Early withdrawal symptoms, past experiences with nicotine, confidence in the ability to quit smoking, severity of tobacco dependence, educational status, andShow MoreRelatedThe Effects of Smoking Bans on Victims of Exposure to Second Hand Smoke800 Words   |  4 Pagesconsider themselves non-smokers, especially young children and pregnant w omen. SHS is estimated to contribute to heart attacks in nonsmokers and causes nearly 53,800 deaths in the United States alone on an annual basis.1 According to the United States Surgeon General’s report from 2010, tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in this country, causing approximately 443,000 adult deaths from smoking-related illnesses each year.2 Additionally, smoking has been estimatedRead MoreThe Public Health Crisis in America1062 Words   |  5 PagesUnited States has reached a critical point that demands action. Chronic conditions such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory diseases and diabetes are the leading causes of disability and premature death in America. While chronic diseases are among the most common and costly health problems, they are also preventable. Three health-damaging behaviors at the center of the issue are tobacco use, lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. Public health campaigns aimed at these behaviorsRead MoreOral Health Promotion For Health1508 Words   |  7 Pagesfocusing on reducing tobacco use or on smoking cessation in the past year (Beall, 2011, p.15). The baseline is 10.5 percent of adults have received information from the dentist or dental hygienist focusing on reducing tobacco use or on smoking cessation in the past year, 2011–12 (age adjusted to the year 2000 standard population) with a target of 13.2 percent (Beall, 2011, p.15) Tobacco use can lead to a wide array of diseases that are not isolated to only the lungs. Tobacco use can lead to cancersRead MoreCigarettes Should be Illegal Essay812 Words   |  4 Pagescurrently the leading cause of death in our country, due to its harmful and addicting contents, such as nicotine and tobacco. Although millions die from it each year, smoking is the single most preventable cause of death as well. Without smoking, a tremendous amount of money and lives will be saved. 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Smoking increases your risk forRead MoreThe Effects Of Tobacco Smoking On The Australian Community753 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction In Australia, tobacco smoking is one of the main leading causes of death and disability.1 Smoking is also one of the single major preventable conditions and is the main causes of disease burden in comparison to other major risk factors.1,2 Use of tobacco voluntarily or involuntary (passive smoking) has been associated with various chronic, life threatening and debilitating conditions such as heart disease, reduced lung function, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema.1-3Read MoreThe Dangers Of Tobacco And Smoking1584 Words   |  7 Pagesupsides to smoking are never discussed. Tobacco and smoking were not always used how they are today. Back around 600 to 900 A.D. many cultures grew tobacco and Native Americans would smoke and use it within religious ceremonies and for medical uses (History of Tobacco). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Treaty of Paris Free Essays

Treaty of Paris Signed by the United States and Spain, December 10, 1898The United States of America and Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, in the name of her august son Don Alfonso XIII, desiring to end the state of war now existing between the two countries, have for that purpose appointed as plenipotentiaries: The President of the United States, William R. Day, Cushman K. Davis, William P. We will write a custom essay sample on The Treaty of Paris or any similar topic only for you Order Now Frye, George Gray, and Whitelaw Reid, citizens of the United States; And Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, Don Eugenio Montero Rios, president of the senate, Don Buenaventura de Abarzuza, senator of the Kingdom and ex-minister of the Crown; Don Jose de Garnica, deputy of the Cortes and associate justice of the supreme court; Don Wenceslao Ramirez de Villa-Urrutia, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Brussels, and Don Rafael Cerero, general of division; Who, having assembled in Paris, and having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in due and proper form, have, after discussion of the matters before them, agreed up on the following articles: Article I. Spain relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba. And as the island is, upon its evacuation by Spain, to be occupied by the United States, the United States will, so long as such occupation shall last, assume and discharge the obligations that may under international law result from the fact of its occupation, for the protection of life and property. Article II. Spain cedes to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and the island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones. Article III. Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying within the following line: A line running from west to east along or near the twentieth parallel of north latitude, and through the middle of the navigable channel of Bachi, from the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) to the one hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, thence along the one hundred and twenty seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the parallel of four degrees and forty five minutes (4 [degree symbol] 45†²]) north latitude, thence along the parallel of four degrees and forty five minutes (4 [degree symbol] 45†²) north latitude to its intersection with the meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty five minutes (119 [degree symbol] 35†²) east of Greenwich, thence along the meridian of longitude one hundred nd nineteen degrees and thirty five minutes (119 [degree symbol] 35†²) east of Greenwich to the parallel of latitude seven degrees and forty minutes (7 [degree symbol] 40†²) north, thence along the parallel of latitude of seven degrees and forty minutes (7 [degree symbol] 40†²) north to its intersection with the one hundred and sixteenth (116th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, thence by a direct line to the intersection of the tenth (10th) degree parallel of north latitude with the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, and thence along the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the point of beginning. The United States will pay to Spain the sum of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000) within three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty. Article IV. The United States will, for the term of ten years from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, admit Spanish ships and merchandise to the ports of the Philippine Islands on the same terms as ships and merchandise of the United States. Article VThe United States will, upon the signature of the present treaty, send back to Spain, at its own cost, the Spanish soldiers taken as prisoners of war on the capture of Manila by the American forces. The arms of the soldiers in question shall be restored to them. Spain will, upon the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, proceed to evacuate the Philippines, as well as the island of Guam, on terms similar to those agreed upon by the Commissioners appointed to arrange for the evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, under the Protocol of August 12, 1898, which is to continue in force till its provisions are completely executed. The time within which the evacuation of the Philippine Islands and Guam shall be completed shall be fixed by the two Governments. Stands of colors, uncaptured war vessels, small arms, guns of all calibres, with their carriages and accessories, powder, ammunition, livestock, and materials and supplies of all kinds, belonging to the land and naval forces of Spain in the Philippines and Guam, remain the property of Spain. Pieces of heavy ordnance, exclusive of field artillery, in the fortifications and coast defences, shall remain in their emplacements for the term of six months, to be reckoned from the exchange of ratifications of the treaty; and the United States may, in the meantime, purchase such material from Spain, if a satisfactory agreement between the two Governments on the subject shall be reached. Article VISpain will, upon the signature of the present treaty, release all prisoners of war, and all persons detained or imprisoned for political offences, in connection with the insurrections in Cuba and the Philippines and the war with the United States. Reciprocally, the United States will release all persons made prisoners of war by the American forces, and will undertake to obtain the release of all Spanish prisoners in the hands of the insurgents in Cuba and the Philippines. The Government of the United States will at its own cost return to Spain and the Government of Spain will at its own cost return to the United States, Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, according to the situation of their respective homes, prisoners released or caused to be released by them, respectively, under this article. Article VII. The United States and Spain mutually relinquish all claims for indemnity, national and individual, of every kind, of either Government, or of its citizens or subjects, against the other Government, that may have arisen since the beginning of the late insurrection in Cuba and prior to the exchange of ratifications of the present treaty, including all claims for indemnity for the cost of the war. The United States will adjudicate and settle the claims of its citizens against Spain relinquished in this article. Article VIII. In conformity with the provisions of Articles I, II, and III of this treaty, Spain relinquishes in Cuba, and cedes in Porto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, in the island of Guam, and in the Philippine Archipelago, all the buildings, wharves, barracks, forts, structures, public highways and other immovable property which, in conformity with law, belong to the public domain, and as such belong to the Crown of Spain. And it is hereby declared that the relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, to which the preceding paragraph refers, can not in any respect impair the property or rights which by law belong to the peaceful possession of property of all kinds, of provinces, municipalities, public or private establishments, ecclesiastical or civic bodies, or any other associations having legal capacity to acquire and possess property in the aforesaid territories renounced or ceded, or of private individuals, of whatsoever nationality such individuals may be. The aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, includes all documents exclusively referring to the sovereignty relinquished or ceded that may exist in the archives of the Peninsula. Where any document in such archives only in part relates to said sovereignty, a copy of such part will be furnished whenever it shall be requested. Like rules shall be reciprocally observed in favor of Spain in respect of documents in the archives of the islands above referred to. In the aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, are also included such rights as the Crown of Spain and its authorities possess in respect of the official archives and records, executive as well as judicial, in the islands above referred to, which relate to said islands or the rights and property of their inhabitants. Such archives and records shall be carefully preserved, and private persons shall without distinction have the right to require, in accordance with law, authenticated copies of the contracts, wills and other instruments forming part of notorial protocols or files, or which may be contained in the executive or judicial archives, be the latter in Spain or in the islands aforesaid. Article IX. Spanish subjects, natives of the Peninsula, residing in the territory over which Spain by the present treaty relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty, may remain in such territory or may remove therefrom, retaining in either event all their rights of property, including the right to sell or dispose of such property or of its proceeds; and they shall also have the right to carry on their industry, commerce and professions, being subject in respect thereof to such laws as are applicable to other foreigners. In case they remain in the territory they may preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain by making, before a court of record, within a year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, a declaration of their decision to preserve such allegiance; in default of which declaration they shall be held to have renounced it and to have adopted the nationality of the territory in which they may reside. The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by the Congress. Article X. The inhabitants of the territories over which Spain relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be secured in the free exercise of their religion. Article XI. The Spaniards residing in the territories over which Spain by this treaty cedes or relinquishes her sovereignty shall be subject in matters civil as well as criminal to the jurisdiction of the courts of the country wherein they reside, pursuant to the ordinary laws governing the same; and they shall have the right to appear before such courts, and to ursue the same course as citizens of the country to which the courts belong. Article XII. Judicial proceedings pending at the time of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty in the territories over which Spain relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be determined according to the following rules: 1. Judgments r endered either in civil suits between private individuals, or in criminal matters, before the date mentioned, and with respect to which there is no recourse or right of review under the Spanish law, shall be deemed to be final, and shall be executed in due form by competent authority in the territory within which such judgments should be carried out. 2. Civil suits between private individuals which may on the date mentioned be undetermined shall be prosecuted to judgment before the court in which they may then be pending or in the court that may be substituted therefor. 3. Criminal actions pending on the date mentioned before the Supreme Court of Spain against citizens of the territory which by this treaty ceases to be Spanish shall continue under its jurisdiction until final judgment; but, such judgment having been rendered, the execution thereof shall be committed to the competent authority of the place in which the case arose. Article XIII. The rights of property secured by copyrights and patents acquired by Spaniards in the Island of Cuba and in Porto Rico, the Philippines and other ceded territories, at the time of the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, shall continue to be respected. Spanish scientific, literary and artistic works, not subversive of public order in the territories in question, shall continue to be admitted free of duty into such territories, for the period of ten years, to be reckoned from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty. Article XIV. Spain will have the power to establish consular officers in the ports and places of the territories, the sovereignty over which has been either relinquished or ceded by the present treaty. Article XV. The Government of each country will, for the term of ten years, accord to the merchant vessels of the other country the same treatment in respect of all port charges, including entrance and clearance dues, light dues, and tonnage duties, as it accords to its own merchant vessels, not engaged in the coastwise trade. Article XVI. It is understood that any obligations assumed in this treaty by the United States with respect to Cuba are limited to the time of its occupancy thereof; but it will upon termination of such occupancy, advise any Government established in the island to assume the same obligations. Article XVII. The present treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain; and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington within six months from the date hereof, or earlier if possible. In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this treaty and have hereunto affixed our seals. Done in duplicate at Paris, the tenth day of December, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight. [Seal] William R. Day[Seal] Cushman K. Davis[Seal] William P. Frye[Seal] Geo. Gray[Seal] Whitelaw Reid[Seal] Eugenio Montero Rios[Seal] B. de Abarzuza[Seal] J. de Garnica[Seal] W. R. de Villa Urrutia[Seal] Rafael CereroDocument courtesy of The Avalon Project Source: A Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain, U. S. Congress, 55th Cong. , 3d sess. , Senate Doc. No. 62, Part 1 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899), 5-11. | Source: â€Å"Firstworldwar. com. † First World War. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 22 Jan. 2013. http://www. pbs. org/wgbh/amex/1900/filmmore/reference/primary/treatyofparis. html How to cite The Treaty of Paris, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Importance of Business Communication in Work Place

Question: Discuss about theImportance of Business Communication in Work Place. Answer: Business communication is the way to sharing the information regarding business between people of the organization. It is important to have effective communication skill in the business because it makes easy to understand the message. Effective communication in business contributes the sustainable success of its commercial. Communication skill must in the business and it can be various forms such as writing skill, listening skill, verbal skill, team work skill, interpersonal skill, and presentation skill, selling skill and networking skill. To make effective communication in workplace, there are various ways like communication via training, open meeting, one on one, presentations and use of visual source (Spaho, 2011). Communication in workplace is very important because it allows organization to be more productive towards performing the task. Employees of the organization can enhance their productivity and morale if they are able to communicate with up and down management. The importance of communication in workplace consider as a wind which is necessary for life same with organization. Without effective communication, organization would be failed to reflect its progress and for potential growth. It is the source which helps to manager to perform their duties and responsibilities with enthusiasm. Effective communication in workplace can be the successful building block. Importance of communication can be summarized in various ways. It enhances the productivity of the work place and focuses on the motivation through clarifying about the task. It is considered as a source of knowledge and information which facilitates to the employee for the process of decision making. Communication has the ability to transform the attitude of an individual. Organizations newspaper, magazines meetings can change the attitude of employee towards performing the task and way of view regarding company. To being social communication plays a crucial role. It not only control the behavior of an individual in business but also able to assess in entire control process. Business has some policies and structures which is necessary to follow for running the business efficiently. Communication facilitates employee to communicate in case of any conflicts and misunderstanding. Importance of communication in workplace is very important because it does not only put efforts for potential growth of company but also focuses on the development of employee by providing proper understanding. Communication skill can reduce the possible harm within the organization and enhances the skill of team work. Team work brings closer team member and make task with full of fun and interesting. During working on a team it is important to make assure that communication should be done between members of team. To remove the obstacles and conflicts from the organization, manager of the organization must analyze the barriers of the communication and find solution to remove it as soon as possible. It is the primary responsibility of manager. It is not possible to have perfect communication every time but problems can be managed hastily. Every person should have known about the involvement in the task. Importance of communication comes in scenario when people of office not only share the goals of the company but also share the clear understanding about the task. Workplace communication can make the employee satisfied. It has been analyzed that group communication conducts to an improvement of performance. Workplace communication has positive effect on absenteeism also. Employee of the company feels secure if they get true information from their superiors. It has been examined that company with having an efficient communication keep the ability to retain the employee. Open communication in the workplace can reduce the possible conflicts. Conflicts and misunderstanding in the organization can be easily resolved by mutual discussion and this attitude leads the organization to the path of growth. Effective communication can be the biggest issue of failure or success of the organization. Every organization has vision, mission and goals. Clear communication brings the clarity about the performing task and being clear about the task enhance the productivity of the employee because employee gets know that what he need to done and what expectations a re required to accomplish the task. They will be able to give their best towards performing the task. Open communication can form the health relationship between employees and employer. It force to employee for being loyal to the organization. It makes the health and positive environment at workplace and promotes the good working relationship within the organization (Husain, 2013). Due to miscommunication, organization could have to face circumstances of conflicts and crisis which may organization to unnecessary late deliver project. Proper utilization of resources could not be done with improper communication and overall performance gets influenced. Thus, effective communications is must to proper use of resources and enhance the productivity of them. There are so many barriers which may affect the communication of organization. It can be environmental barrier and personal barriers. Environmental barriers are miscommunication, lack of time, inadequate attention, managerial philosophy and poor relationship. These all may influence the working environment of the company. Personal barriers can be lack of empathy, insensitivity and over emotional. It is important for the business to remove barriers as soon as possible and provide better solution so that working environment cannot get impacted due to these barriers (Lunenburg, 2010). There are so many steps and resolution available which will be helpful to overcome these barriers. Environmental barriers can be reduced if attentive attitude is being accepted by receiver and sender. Through reducing links such as hierarchical system can be the source of overcome on environmental barrier. Personal barriers can be reduced by understanding the beliefs and values of others (Adu-Oppong Agyin -Birikorang, 2014). Communication effectiveness can be improved if administrator of the company focuses on clarification before communicating. It is necessary to focus on purpose of communication. Communication should be precise. To serve the specific goal and information, the tone of administrator should be well mannered. While communicating, administrator needs to be mind full not only important messages but also for the minor content. The responsibility of administrator does not end till providing the information it is need to take follow up their communication with employees. Their actions need to be matched with communication so that clear understanding can be appeared by actions as well. While it is difficult to maintain and establish the high level of communication in workplace but with the help of principles of communication, environment can be changed. Senders responsibility is not enough for proper communication, receivers responsibilities in the term of effective communication are keeping you rself as the others point of view , go easy on criticism and do not argue. When administrator is unable to make the environment positive it creates the negative environment which reduce the productivity of the workplace (Lunenburg, 2010). It has been concluded that communication skills can change the business environment and increase the productivity of the work place. It has been explained that effective communication can be able to generate the clear understanding among employees. Concise communication reduces the possibilities of conflicts and with the help of mutual discussion issues and conflicts can be resolved. Communication keeps importance in the workplace because every administrative activity involves direct or indirect communication. Effective communication skills have the capability to improve the ability of administrator for becoming leader. It is important for the administrator to create the environment where in plans, issues, views, ideas and conflicts are discussed and managed in an efficient and perfection manner. Various barriers regarding communication have been discussed. Resolutions for overcoming barriers also have been elaborated. In the end it has been observed that the importance of communicat ion is very high in the business because directly or indirectly it makes clear understanding towards performing task. References Adu-Oppong, A. A. Agyin-Birikorang, E. (2014).communication in the workplace: guidelines for improving effectiveness. G.J.C.M.P.,Vol.3 (5):208-213 ISSN: 2319 7285. Husain, Z. (2013). Effective communication brings successful organizational change. The Business Management Review, Vol.3 Number-2, January 2013. Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). Communication: The Process, Barriers, and Improving Effectiveness. Schooling Volume 1, No. 1. Spaho, K. (2011). Organizational communication as an important factor of company success: case study of bosnia and Herzegovina. Business Intelligence Journal - July, 2011 Vol.4 No.2.